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给水净化站的培训资料  

2008-07-23 12:14:38|  分类: 学科研究 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Teaching Material for Training Program

(给水净化站)

(Water Supply and Purification Station)

 

一、  给水净化站的生产概况:

General production situation of water supply and purification station

给水净化站是将原水(河水)经给水净化工艺处理后达到生产用水的水质要求,再输送到各生产车间的供水部门,是整个生产环节中必不可少的重要车间,它的职责是保证不间断地向各车间输送合格的生产用水、消防用水。

Water supply and purification station serves to treat the raw water (water from river) with water purification technology to enable the water quality suitable for use in production and supply the qualified water to the water supply unit of each workshop. Therefore, water supply and purification station is an indispensable workshop in the whole production linkage and its duty is to ensure continuous water supply to all workshops for production and fire demand.

我厂给水净化站的生产概况是河水由水源泵房进水泵抽送到给水净化站,经沉砂池,反应沉淀池,双阀滤池,清水池,最后由清水泵房的水泵将合格生产水送至各车间。采用的是化学(投加混凝剂),物理(沉淀、过滤)的方法,除去水中浊质,以满足造纸工业用水质量标准,每天的日供水量为55000T/月,其中5000T用于本车间生产自用,供水水压一般在0.48Mpa左右。

The operation outline of our water supply and purification station: water from river is sent by the intake pump at the water pump house to the water supply and purification station, and then flow through the sand basin, reaction and sedimentation tank, double-valves filtering pond, clear-water reservoir where the qualified water is fed to all workshops by the pump in the clear-water reservoir. The chemical (input of coagulant) and physical (sedimentation, filtering) methods are employed to eliminate impurity in the water to meet the water quality required by papermaking industry. The (daily) supply volume is 55000T/M, in which 5000T is production water for the workshop itself. The water supply pressure is generally at about 0.48Mpa.

缅甸200T/d浆厂给水净化站生产概况:河水经取水泵站将原水抽送到净化站的两座φ25圆形澄清器,经滤池、清水池,最后由清水泵房将水送至各车间,同时缅方工艺中增加一条生产水经加氯消毒处理后的生活用水管线,缅方的整个水处理工艺依然是采用化学、物理的方法来达到除去水中杂质的目的。缅方每天的处理水量为51600m3/日(2150m3/h平均)、61200m3/日(2550m3/h)最大处理水量,生产供水水压在≥0.5Mpa,生活用水水压≥0.4Mpa。

The operation outline of the water supply and purification station in the Pulp Plant of 200T/d in Myanmar: water from river is pumped to the two clarifiers of φ25 in the purification station via intake pump house, and flows through the filtering pond and the clear-water reservoir where it is fed to all workshops through the clear water pump house. Myanmar will add a domestic water piping in process after chlorine sterilizing to the production water. In the whole water treatment process of Myanmar side, the chemical and physical methods are also employed to eliminate impurity in the water. The daily supply volume of the Myanmar plant is 51600m3/d (2150m3/h on average), the maximum treatment volume is 61200m3/d (2550m3/h). Water pressures for production and domestic use shall be higher than 0.5Mpa, and 0.4Mpa, respectively.

给水的出水水质标准:

The standard of water quality of outflow water:

该标准量用来检测给水净化站的生产处理工艺是否达到要求,出水水质是否符合标准。

The standard is used to measure whether the treatment process of the water supply and purification station has met the requirements, whether the quality of outflow water complies with the standard.

我厂给水出水水质要求:浑浊度≤10mg/e

                      PH值:6.5~8

缅甸:生产水质标准:PH值:6.5~8

                  色度:<30度

                  浊度:<40mg/l

                  总硬度:<350mg/l

生活水标准:浊度:<5度          总硬度:<450mg/l

            色度:<15度         细菌总数:<100个/ml

            PH:6.5~8            总大肠菌群:<3个/l

The requirements for the quality of outflow water of our plant: Turbidity ≤10mg/e

PH: 6.5~8

Myanmar plant: standard of water quality of production water: PH: 6.5~8

Chroma <30 degree,  Turbidity <40mg/l,         Overall hardness <350mg/l

Standard of water quality of domestic water: Turbidity ≤5 degree, 

Overall hardness<450mg/l, Chroma<15 degree, Sum of Bacteria<100/ml

PH:6.5~8            Total colibacillus group <3/l

二、给水处理系统的主要构筑物名称、功能及相关参数,设备介绍:

An introduction to the names, functions and relevant parameters of the main constructions as well as main equipment used for of the water supply and purification system

1、  我厂给水处理系统的主要构筑物:沉砂池、反应池沉淀池、双阀滤池等。

The main constructions of our water supply and purification system: sand basin, reaction and sedimentation tank, double-valves filtering pond etc

2、  主要构筑物的功能及相关参数:例如:沉砂池主要功能是源水在池中进行初步沉淀,将大颗粒悬浮物沉淀分离(例如泥沙),主要参数有流速、停留时间;反应沉淀池主要是用来混凝反应、形成矾花后、在沉淀池去除,主要参数有反应池的反应时间、流速等,参数的不同将影响其反应沉淀的效果;双阀滤池作用是进一步去除水中的细小颗粒,达到进一步过滤的目的,主要参数有滤速、反冲洗时间、反冲洗强度等。

The functions and relevant parameters of the main constructions: for example, the sand basin mainly serves for initial sedimentation of the raw water so as to separate the big granulated suspensions (e.g. mud and sand) by sedimentation. Key parameters: the velocity of flow and stationary period. The reaction and sedimentation tank is mainly used for coagulation reaction to form alum grain (alumen ustum) to be eliminated in the sedimentation tank. Key parameters: the reaction time in the reaction tank and the velocity of flow. The Difference of the parameters will affect the effect of reaction and sedimentation. The function of the double-valves filtering pond is to further eliminate fine grains in the water so as to further filter the water. Key parameters: the velocity of filtering, time for reversed flushing and the intensity of reversed flushing etc.

4、  主要设备:清水泵、加药泵、真空泵、刮泥机等。

Major equipment: clean water pump, chemicals feeding pump, vacuum pump and mud scraper, etc.

5、  缅甸200Td纸浆厂给水净化站的主要构筑物:反应澄清池、滤池、清水池

The main constructions of the water supply and purification station in Myanmar 200t/d   Pulp Mill: reaction and clarifying tank, filtering pond, clear-water reservoir.

6、缅甸给水净化站设备:进水泵、旋转滤网、刮泥机、加药泵、加氯装置等。

Equipment of Myanmar water supply and purification station: intake pump, rotary filtering net, mud scraper, chemical feeding pump and chlorine feeding device, etc.

三、给水净化站预处理目的:去除原水中的悬浮物质,胶体细菌二级其它有害成份,使净化后的水质能满足工业或生活饮用水的标准。

The purpose of pretreatment in water supply and purification station: eliminate the suspensions, class-two colloid bacteria and other harmful elements in the raw water to make it qualified for industrial and domestic use after purification.

四、水体中所含物质及主要特征:

Substances and their characteristics contained in the raw waters:

水体所含物质主要有:悬浮物、胶体物质等等。

Main substances contained in raw waters: suspensions, colloid substances, etc.

悬浮物主要特征:它们在动水中呈悬浮状态,但在静水中可分离出来,轻的上浮,重的下沉。

Main characteristics of suspensions: they suspend in moving water but can be separated in static water, for those with lightweight suspend and those with heavy weight sink in static water.

胶体颗粒主要特征:在水中相当稳定,静置很长时间甚至数年也不会自然下沉,当光线照射时即被散射而使水呈浑浊现象。

Main characteristics of colloid grains: they are rather stable in water and will not sink after long time even several years’ sedimentation. They seem in a scattered state under the radiation of light and make the water turbid. 

五、我厂给水净化站流程工艺:

富屯溪→取水头→水源泵房→沉砂池→反应沉淀池→双阀滤池→清水池→清水泵房→送各生产车间

The process flow of our water supply and purification plant:

Futun River→water intake→ water pump house→sand basin→reaction and sedimentation tank→double-valves filtering pond →clear-water reservoir→clear-water pump house→workshops

缅甸给水净化站流程工艺:

河水→取水泵站→反应澄清池→滤池→清水池→清水泵房→送生产车间及送生活用水

The process flow of Myanmar water supply and purification plant:

River water→intake pump house→reaction and clarifying tank→filtering pond

→clear-water reservoir→clear-water pump house→workshops & domestic water

 

第二部分:Part II

 

一、  简单介绍水源泵房:水源泵房是取水泵站,我厂采用四台双吸离心水泵取水。

Brief introduction to raw water pump house: the raw water pump house is the intake pump station. Four double entry centrifugal pumps are employed in out plant.

二、沉砂池是源水进入给水净化站的第一道工艺,主要是通过沉淀的方法,将水中的泥沙及悬浮颗粒分离出来,在沉砂池出口加药,进入下一道反应沉淀工艺。

The sand basin is the first procedure for the raw water to enter water supply and purification station and its main function is to separate mud, sand and suspending grains in the water through sedimentation. Chemicals are added at the output of the sand basin before the water going to the next step for reaction and sedimentation.

三、混凝原理以及混凝效果的影响因素分析:

Coagulation principle and analysis on factors affecting the effect of coagulation

(一)    混凝原理: Coagulation principle

水质的混凝原理是在水中加入混凝剂,使水中含各种细小的胶体颗粒失去稳定和混凝剂水电胶体凝聚成较大的绒体。这种绒体具有吸附能力,不但能吸附悬浮颗粒,还能吸附一部分细菌和溶介物质,绒体在混凝过程中颗粒逐渐增大,在一定条件下即从水中分离沉降下来,使水由浑变清,为促进混凝效果,有时在水中加入混凝剂。

The water coagulation principle is to add coagulant to the water to un-stabilize various fine colloid grains and to coagulate the coagulant water and electric colloid into larger wool shaped body. The wool shaped body is adsorptive and not only can it absorb the suspending grains but it can also absorb some bacteria and dissolved substance. The wool shaped body increasingly become larger during the coagulation and is separated and settled down under certain conditions, making the water from turbid to clear. To improve the effect of coagulation, sometimes coagulants are added to the water.

(三)常用的几种混凝剂:硫酸铝、聚合氯化铝等

Several common coagulants: aluminum sulfate, polymer aluminum chloride etc.

(四)影响混凝效果的因素有:PH值、浊度、碱度、水和混凝剂的混合速度,混凝剂的用量的及物理因素:水温、混合情况等。

The elements affecting the effect of coagulation: PH value, turbidity, basicity, mixing speed of water and coagulant, usage of coagulant and physical elements: water temperature and mixture, etc.

1、PH值:在水处理中,要经常测定PH值,水的PH值对混凝效果影响很大,因AL(OH)3是两性化合物,AL(SO4)3最佳范围在PH=6.5-7.5这种状态硫酸铝是以氢氧化铝胶体状态存在于水中,混凝效果好,若PH值再大,例PH>8.5氢氧化铝胶体又明显溶解,生成铝酸离子,ALO2这时混凝去浊效果又很差了。

PH value: it is common practice to measure PH value from time to time in water treatment. The PH value of water exerts great effect on the coagulation. Since AL(OH)3 is double compound, when PH value is 6.5-7.5, AL(SO4)3 is at its best range, in which situation aluminum sulfate is present in water as aluminum hydroxide colloid with good coagulation effect. If the value of PH is bigger than the said range, for example, PH>8.5, then the aluminum hydroxide colloid is dissolved into aluminum acid ion and the clearing effect of the ALO2 is very poor.

2、碱度:混凝剂投入原水中,由于水解作用,水中氢离子的数量增加,提高水的酸度,PH值之降低,这种现象阻碍了水解过程的进行,不利于形成更多的铝或铁的氢氧化物胶体,因此水中必须有一定的碱度,用来中和因水引而产生的酸度。

Basicity: when the coagulant is added into raw water, the number of hydrogen ion in water will increase due to the hydrolyzation. The acidity of water will increase and PHvalue of the same will decrease. The phenomena hinders the process of hydrolyzing and is inimical to form more colloid of hydroxide of aluminum or iron. Therefore, a certain degree of basicity must be remained in water to neutralize the acidity due to hydrolyzing effect.

3、水和混凝剂的混合速度:开始时混凝速度要大,以后逐渐减慢,因水解和形成胶体速度很快,所以要高速度混合才能生成大量的小颗粒的胶体与水中杂质起作用。

Mixing speed of water and coagulant: the speed shall be higher at the beginning, then slow down gradually. Since the speed of hydrolyzing and colloid-forming is fast, so only high speed mixing can render large number of fine grain colloid to react with impurities in water.

4、水温:影响有两方面:影响混凝剂和水中碱度起化学反应速度,影响矾花的质量。

Water temperature: it has effects on two aspects: the chemical reaction speed between coagulant and basicity of water; the quality of alum grain.

5、混凝剂用量:与原水的浊度和色度有关,通过实验证明投加量与季节性变而相应变化。

Dosage of coagulant: it relates to the turbidity and chroma of the water. It is proved by experiments that the dosage varies with the seasons.

四、反应沉淀原理及分类:

Principle and classification of reaction and sedimentation

(一)反应:经过与药剂充分混合后的原水进反应池进行反应,出现细小矾花,反应池一般按由大逐渐变小来改变流速的,在较大的反应流速下使水中的胶体颗粒发生碰撞吸附后的胶体颗粒结成一定的矾花,绝大部分的矾花截留在沉淀池中。

Reaction: the raw water reacts in the reaction tank after sufficiently mixing with chemicals and renders fine alum grains. The reaction tank generally changes the speed of flow from higher ones to lower ones. The colloid grains in water collide and are absorbed to form some alum grains when the speed of reaction flow is higher. Most of the alum grains are retained in the sedimentation tank.

反应池分类:隔板反应池(平流式、竖流式、回流式)、旋转反应池、涡流式反应池、悬浮反应加隔板反应池、机械反应池         

Classification of reaction tank: baffle-plate reaction tank (horizontal, vertical, and back-flow types), rotary reaction tank, vortex reaction tank, suspension reaction tank with baffle-plate, mechanical reaction tank…..

(二)沉淀:原水加混凝剂后,经过混合反应,水中胶体杂质凝聚成较大的矾花颗粒,进一步在沉淀池中去除。

Sedimentation: after the addition of coagulant and the mixture reaction, colloid impurities in water coagulate into larger alum grains, which are further removed from the sedimentation tank.

沉淀池分类:平流式、竖流式、辐射式、斜管、斜板式

Classification of sedimentation tank: horizontal, vertical, radiant, tilted tube and plate types

五、过滤的原理,影响过滤的因素,滤池的冲洗,滤池常出现的故障:

Principle of filtration: factors affecting filtration, flushing of the filter pond and common failures of the filter pond:

(一)过滤的原理 Principle of filtration

过滤原理:近代认为过滤是表面吸附和机械阻留综合结果,当水自上部进入滤层时,水中部分悬浮物由于吸附和机械阻留作用,被滤层表面截留下来,经过一段时间的悬浮物之间重选和架桥等作用,滤层表面好象形成了一层附加滤膜,在此后的过程中起主要的过滤作用。

Principle of filtration: it is thought in modern times that filtration is the combination of surface absorption and mechanical interception. When water enters the filter lay from above, some of the suspensions in the water will be retained by the surface of the filter lay due to absorption and mechanical interception. With the reselection and bridging action between the suspensions for some time, an additional filter film is seemed to be formed on the surface of the filter, which plays a key-filtering role in the process thereafter.

(二)影响过滤效果的因素:滤速、滤料及承托层、滤池的冲洗

Factors affecting the filtration: speed of filtering, material of filter and carrier, flushing of filtering pond

(1)滤速:一般情况下,滤速逾大,杂质穿透深度逾大,滤层中杂质分布逾超均匀,下层滤料发挥的作用也更大,但滤速过大,将使过滤周期大大缩短,大量杂质可能穿透整个滤层而使出口水水质恶化,一般滤速采用8-12米/时。

Speed of filtering: generally, the higher the speed, the deeper the penetration of impurity. The more overbalance of the distribution of impurity on filtering layer, the bigger role the lower filter material plays. However, excessive speed will greatly shorten the filter period and a large amount of impurity may penetrate the whole filtering layer so as to worsen the quality of output water. Generally, the speed is between 8-12 m/h.

(2)滤料及承托层:滤料应当有足够的机械强度,能防止冲洗时滤料颗粒发生破碎,并且化学性能稳定,不会影响出水水质,有一定的颗粒级配和适当孔隙率,常用的滤料有石英砂、无烟煤等。

Filter material and carrier: the filter material shall be of sufficient mechanical strength to prevent breakage of the grain of filter material during flushing and shall be chemically stable to avoid affecting the quality of water. The filter material shall also be of certain granular level and appropriate porosity. The common filter materials are quartz sand and anthracite, etc.

承托层一般采用天然卵石,它的作用是过滤时防止滤料进入配水系统冲洗时起均匀布水的作用。

Generally, natural scree is taken as the carrier and functions to prevent the filter material from entering into water distribution system during filtering and to equalize the water distribution during flushing.

(3)滤池的冲洗:Flushing of filtering pond:

滤池经一段时间运行后,必须进行冲洗,以恢复滤池的正常工作能力,为保证冲洗符合要求必须:

A、要有足够的冲洗压力,使所有的滤料层得到适当的膨胀;

B、要有一定的冲洗时间使滤料颗粒相互磨擦碰撞。让清洗的水池表面的污泥来带出滤池,冲洗水要迅速彻底地排出池外。

C、冲洗水要均匀地分布在整个滤料平面上。

The filtering pond must be flushed after operation for some time to restore its normal capacity. To ensure the flush meeting the requirements, there must be:

A. sufficient flush pressure to expand all filter layers appropriately;

B. a certain period of flushing time to make the grains of filter material colliding with each other. Flushing water shall be quickly and thoroughly discharged out of the pond to let flushing water bring the mus out;

C. flushing water shall be distributed uniformly across the whole filter surface.

目前,快滤池的冲洗都采用自下而上的冲洗方法,称为反冲洗。

Currently, the flushing for the quick filtering pond is done from the bottom to surface and is referred to as reversing flushing.

冲洗强度是指每平方米滤池面积上单位时间内所通过的冲洗水量一般用升/秒.米2表示。

Flushing strength refers to flushing water flowing through a square meter surface in unit time and is expressed as litre/s.m2.

冲洗强度与滤料粒径和比重,滤层膨胀,水温等有关。

Flushing strength relates to the diameter of filter material grain, the expansion of filter layer and water temperature, etc.

一般认为:It is generally thought that

A、当滤料粒径水温等一定时,冲洗强度大膨胀率大。

the bigger the flushing strength, the bigger the expansion when the diameter of grain and water temperature are certain.

B、当膨胀率要求一定时,滤料粒径越大,所需的冲洗强度越大。

When the expansion rate is certain, the bigger the diameter of grain, the larger the flushing strength is required.

C、水温越高,所需的冲洗强度也越大。

The higher the water temperature, the larger the flushing strength is required.

(三)滤池常出现故障及处理方法:(参阅操作作业指导书)

Common failures of the filter pond and remedies: (refer to operation instructions)

(四)滤池的运行操作:(详细参阅操作作业指导书)

The operation of the filter pond: (refer to operation instructions for details)

 

第三部分:Part III

 

一. 简单介绍清水池,清水泵房

Brief introduction to clear-water reservoir and clear-water pump house

二、水泵操作步骤及相关注意事项:

Pump operation procedures and notices:

(1)水泵开机前准备工作:(详细参阅操作作业指导书)

Preparations before starting pump (refer to operation instructions for details) 

(2)水泵开停机操作:(详细参阅操作作业指导书)

On/Off operation of pump (refer to operation instructions for details)

(3)相关注意事项及巡回检查事项:(详细参阅操作作业指导书)

Notices and items to be itinerantly checked (refer to operation instructions for details)

三、水泵基础知识:Fundamentals of water pumps

(1)泵的定义:泵是由原动机驱动下,给予液体能量,从而把所需的液体连续,送到要求的高度成一定压力的地方。

Definition of pump: Pump works under the motive drive to energize liquid so as to transmit continuously the needed liquid to the required height or a place with certain pressure.

(2)水泵的工作原理:在泵内充满水的情况下,叶轮旋转产生离心力,叶轮槽道中的水在离心力的作用下甩向外围流进泵壳,于是叶轮中心压力降低,这个压力低于进水管内压力,水在这个压力差的作用下,由吸水池流入叶轮,这样水泵就可以不断吸水供水。

Operating principle of water pump: when the pump is filled with water, the impeller rotates to generate a centrifugal force. The water in the channel of the impeller is thrown outwards and flows into the pump shell under the action of the centrifugal force. Thus, the pressure at the central of the impeller decreases to be lower than the pressure in the intake conduit. Under the action of the pressure difference, the water is drawn from suction tank into the impeller to make the pump continuously sucking and supplying water.

(3)离心水泵分类:Classification of centrifugal pump:

a、按叶轮进水方式分:单吸泵(扬程高、流量小、结构简单)双吸泵

In terms of feeding for impeller: single-entry pump (with higher head, smaller flow and simple structure) and double-entry pump

b、泵的工作叶轮数目分:单级泵、多级泵

In terms of number of work impeller: single-level pump and multilevel pump

c、以泵轴位置来分:卧式泵、立式泵、斜式泵

In terms of location of pump axle: horizontal pump, vertical pump, tilted pump

d、按工作压力来分:低压泵、中压泵、高压泵

In terms of work pressure: low pressure pump, middle pressure pump and high pressure pump

(4)水泵的结构:主要是由吸入室、压出室、泵轴和轴承、叶轮、密封环、填料函组成。

The structure of water pumps: a water pump is mainly composed of intake chamber, extruding chamber, pump shaft and bearing, impeller, sealing ring and stuffing box.

(5)水泵的基本参数介绍:

Basic parameters of water pumps:

a、扬程:用“H”表示,单位重量的液体经过水泵后其能量的增值称为扬程。

Head: denoted with H, the increment of energy of unit weight liquid after flowing through pump is called the head.

b、流量:用“Q”表示:单位时间内输送液体的数量,用来衡量出液量的大小,流量的变化会引起其他参数发生变化(即扬程、功率、效率等)当流量升高,扬程减少;流量降低、扬程就上升。

Flow: denoted with Q, the volume of liquid transmitted during a unit time; it is used to measure the output of liquid. The change in flow will cause other parameters (i.e. head, power, and efficiency, etc) to change, when the flow increases, the head will decrease and vice verse.

c、转速:水泵叶轮在每分钟时间内旋转的次数,用“n”表示,转速与流量对扬程有很大的影响,转速降低,流量、扬程也降低,转速不能随意提高,否则造成电功机超载。

Rotary speed: the times of rotation an impeller completed per minute, denoted with n. Rotary speed and flow exert great effect on the head. When the speed slows down, both the flow and the head decrease. The speed shall not be increased casually; otherwise it will overload the motor.

d、比转速:又称比速,它是理论上研究水特性,叶轮形状的综合性参数,说明流量、扬程、转速之间的相互关系。

Rotary speed rate: also known as specific speed, is a comprehensive parameter used in theoretically study of water characteristic and shape of impeller, it indicates the mutual relationship between flow, head and rotary speed.

f、泵的允许吸上真空度:表示水泵能够吸上水的最大高度,用“HS”表示。

The permitted suction vacuum of pump: indicating the maximum height of the suction capacity of pump, denoted with HS

四、水泵运行中常出现的故障及解决方法:(详细参阅检修作业导书)

Common pump failures occurred in operation and remedies (refer to operation instructions for details)

五、水泵的保养:(详细参阅操作作业指导书)

Maintenance of pumps (refer to operation instructions for details).

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