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碱回收碱炉培训手册  

2008-07-23 12:01:59|  分类: 学科研究 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Teaching Material for Training Program

(燃烧)

(Recovery Boiler)

 

1.碱回收燃烧基本过程及意义?

The basic process and purpose of combustion in alkali recovery

1.1  将蒸发工段送来的浓黑浓,经浓缩、干燥、燃烧后生成的熔融物,用稀白液溶解成合格的绿液,供苛化工段使用。

When condensing, drying and burning the thick black liquor which is disgorged from evaporator section, molten mass can be generated. While being dissolved in sparse white liquor, qualified green liquor can be produced and fed to liquor section.

1.2  芒硝经粉碎筛选后与浓黑液均匀混合,送入炉内燃烧,芒硝还成原硫化钠补充   生产过程中碱的损失,并保持苛化白液需要的硫化度。

After disintegrated and screened, Glauber's salt is mixed uniformly with thick black liquor and then fed into incinerator. Through combustion the Glauber's salt is deacidized into sodium sulfide which can make up the loss of alkaline during the process and maintain the required degree of cure for causticizing the white liquor.

1.3  黑液燃烧中产生的热能,通过锅炉生成过热蒸汽供汽轮机发电或作生产用汽。

The heat energy from the combustion of black liquor can  be recovered  by waste boiler and then generates superheated vapor which can be supplied for turbine to generate electric power or be used as process steam.

2. 工艺流程介绍

The introduction about process flow

2.1  碱灰、芒硝、黑液和绿液系统流程

1. The system flow of alkali ash, Glauber's salt, black liquor and chlorine liquor

芒硝

锅炉灰斗

沉槽

 

 

 

 

                           

                                                        

蒸发站

炉膛

 

溶解槽

   

电除尘

螺旋输送机

 

                                             

                                           

绿液泵

黑液喷枪

放空槽

                                                                          

格仓给料器

螺旋输送机

埋刮板机

螺旋输送机

半式提升机

芒硝仓

                                                                    

 

                                             

苛化

   

入炉泵

芒硝碱灰槽

                  

给料器

                  

 

                                        

 

 

 



Alkaline ash, glauber's salt, black liquor and green liquor system flow

 

Ash hopper

Glauber's salt

Semi-type elevator

Depositing tank Sunk tank

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combustion chamber

Covered-up scraper machine

                           

Evaporator station

                                                        

Dissolving tank

 

Glauber's salt bin

   

Cell bunker feeder

Electric dust catcher

 

                                             

                                           

Vent tank

Black liquor spraying gun

Pump for chlorine liquor

                                                                          

Spiral conveyer

                                                                    

Spiral conveyer

Spiral conveyer

 

                                             

   

                  

Feeder

Glauber's salt alkaline ash tank

Pump for entering incinerator

Causticization

                  

 

                                        

 

 

 



2.2 风烟系统流程

 

     空 气

          三次风                     

二次风机

园盘阀

                                    

   

圆盘阀

            二次风

二、三次风预热机

↓                      

 

                                 

 

一次风预热机

电除尘

            一次风

          

园盘阀

 

一次风预热机

     

引风机

 

空气

烟道  

  

100m烟囱

 

                     

 

                                         排入大气

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2  Air and flue gas system flow

 

    Air

Secondary air fan

    Tertiary air                    

Disk valve

                                    

   

Disk valve

Secondary and tertiary air warm-up fan<0}

     Secondary air

↓                      

 

                                  

 

Electric dust catcher

      Primary air

Primary air preheater

          

Disk valve

 

     

Induced draft fan

Primary air preheater

 

 

Air

     

100m chimney

   Air

                                

 Exhaust to atmosphere

 

3  燃烧主要设备名称、构造、性能

Appellation, construct and performance of major burning equipments

单汽包低臭炉(不带圆盘蒸发器)炉膛尺寸 5200×5200

Single drum low odor kiln(without disc evaporator) combustion chamber size: 5200×5200

3.1 碱回收炉:  固形物燃烧易:360t/24h

Alkali recovery kiln:solids burning capacity:360t/24h

蒸汽参数:表压3.82Mpa  温度450    产汽量:40t/h

Steam quality:gage pressure 3.82MPa  temperature 450  steam output: 40t/h

给水温度130℃   供风温度:150℃

Water fed temperature 130℃  air fed temperature:150℃

干法、卧式、油场、双列 Dry process, horizontal, oil field, biserial

3.2 静电除尘器: 处理烟容积:99000NM3/h

Electrostatic dust catcher:capacity of smoke treatment:99000NM3/h

烟气流通面积Flue gas flow area:40m2×2

除尘效率≥99%  Dedusting efficiency≥ 99%

圆盘蒸发器壹台 Disk evaporator: 1 set

3.3 黑液系统: 芒硝碱尘黑液混合器壹台

Black liquor system:Glauber's salt, alkali dust and black liquor combiner: 1 set

喷枪前墙左右各壹把

Spraying gun on front wall: one locate on left and one on right

放空槽壹台 Vent tank: 1 set

入炉黑液泵两台   CHZO80-200     Q=56m3 \h  H=46m

Pump for black liquor to enter the incinerator:

2 set  CHZO80-200  Q = 56m3\h  H = 46m

一次风机壹台  Q=4980m3/h,H=3240Pa左90°

Primary air fan: 1 set  Q = 4980m3/h,H = 3240Pa  left 90°

3.4 供风系统:   二、三次风机壹台  Q=53976m3/h,H=4190Pa左90°

Air supply system:

one secondary fan and one tertiary fan  Q = 53976m3/h,H = 4190Pa left 90°

空气预热器两台  管式,一次风预热器,散热面积48.7m2,二次散热64.8 m2

Air preheaters :2 sets tubular type,primary air preheater,heat transfer area 48.7m2,secondary air preheater  64.8 m2

引风机壹台  Q=202178m3/h,H=2650Pa左0°

Induced draft fan: 1 set Q = 202178m3/h,H = 3240Pa left 0°

绿液泵两台Pumps for green liquor: 2 sets

消音泵两台Mufflers: 2 sets

3.5 绿液系统:   溶解槽壹个

Green liquor system:dissolving tank: 1 set

溜槽紧急备用水箱壹个

Water tank for strake emergency use: 1 set

绿液过滤器两个

Green liquor strainer: 2 set

疏水扩容器壹个

Drainage capacity expander: 1 set

凝结水箱壹个

Condensing tank: 1 set

3.6 供水系统:   凝结水泵两台

Water supply system: condensing pumps: 2 sets

除氧器壹台  高效旋膜式。能力50t/h,工作温度130℃

Deaerator: 1 set, high performance, screw membrane type。Ability 50t/h,working temperature 130℃

电动给水泵两台  DG45-80×9  Q=36-62 m3/h  H=753-614mH2O

Electric water feed pumps: 2 sets, DG45-80×9, Q =36-62m3/h, H=753-614mH2O

Na3PO4溶药槽壹个 Na3PO4 drug dissolving tank: 1 set

3.7 加药系统:   计量槽壹个

Drug feeding system: measuring tank 1 set

加药泵两台  MV112K20N110   Q=0.06m3/h  H=1100 mH2O

Drug feeding pump: 2 sets, MV112K20N110 Q=0.06m3/h H=1100 mH2O

工作油槽100m3

Power oil tank 100m3

3.8 燃油系统:Fuel system:

油枪   8把   JY200/2.0 –15   机械雾化

Oil gun: 8 sets, JY200/2.0–15 mechanical atomization

连排膨胀器1个

Continuous draining expander 1 set

3.9 排污系统:   定排膨胀器1个 定时

Draining system:time draining expander 1 set

排污集箱 Draining header

冷凝水排出器 Condensation water ejector

斗式提升机 Chapelet

芒硝筛 Glauber's salt riddle

3.10 芒硝系统:  芒硝仓

Glauber's salt system:Glauber's salt bin

给料器 Feeder

螺旋输送机 Spiral conveyer

吹灰集箱 Soot blowing header

3.11 吹灰系统:Soot blowing system:

吹灰器      C304C     吹灰行程5200    19台

Soot blower: C304C, sootblowing journey 5200, 19 sets

4  燃烧主要工艺参数  Principal processing parameter for incineration

入炉黑液浓度 55~60%    温度105~115℃

Black liquor fed into the incinerator: concentration 55 ~ 60%,  temperature 105 ~ 115℃

绿液总碱浓度105~115g/L,温度80℃

Green liquor: total alkali concentration 105 ~ 115g/L,temperature 80℃

绿液硫化度  20~24%

Degree of cure of green liquor 20 ~ 24%

绿液喷枪压力 0.18~0.22Mpa

Pressure of spraying gun for green liquor: 0.18 ~ 0.22Mpa

阀槽冷却水出水温<60℃

Valve spool water cooler: outlet temperature<60℃

炉膛负压:0~Z9Pa

Negative pressure of combustion chamber:0 ~ Z9Pa

芒硝还原率≥90%

Percent deaeration of Glauber's salt≥ 90%

5. 原料及成品特征 Characteristics of raw materials and finished products

5.1 芒硝     Na2804≥95%

Glauber’s salt     Na2804≥95%

水不溶物≤1%

Water-insoluble≤1%

氯化物(以C1计)≤1%

Chloride(according to Cl)≤1%

5.2  Na3PO4·12H2O≥95%

硫酸盐(以SO4计)<0.5%

Sulphate(according to SO4)<0.5%

氯化物(以CL计)<0.3%

Chloride(according to CL)<0.3%

水不溶物<0.1%

Water-insoluble<0.1%<

5.3  重钠(200#) Heavy natrium(200#)

运动粘度39-68.8(100℃)厘

Kinematic viscosity 39-68.8 ( 100℃) centi

开口闪点:≥130℃

Open flash point:≥ 130℃

凝固点:≤30℃

Frozen point:≤30℃

水份:≤2%

Moisture:≤ 2%

机械杂质:<2.5%

Mechanical impurities:<2.5%

净热值:37.8-46MJ/kg

Net calorific value:37.8-46MJ/kg

5.4 (给水)悬浮物≤2000

(fed water)suspended matter≤ 2000

硬度:≤30微克当量/升

Rigidity:≤30 microgram equivalent / litre

PH:8.8-9.3

PH: 8.8-9.3

含纳;≤1000ug/L

Natrium contained: ≤1000ug/L

溶解氧:≤7ug/L

Dissolved oxygen:≤7ug/L

铜:≤5ug/L

Cuprum:≤5ug/L

5.5 氧钠炉水 Water containing oxygen and natrium in the boiler

碱度:≤12毫克当量/升

Alkalinity:≤12 milligram equivalent / litre

磷酸根:5-15mg/L

Phosphate radical:5-15mg/L

5.6  过热蒸汽 Overheat Steam

PNa≤15ug/kg

SiO2≤20ug/kg

6  燃烧原理及影响燃烧因素

Principles and the impacted facts of combustion

6.1 燃烧原理:燃烧过程基本上可分为几个彼此关联时阶段。首先,黑液喷入炉膛后,与高温炉气接触,黑液中的水份开始蒸发,成干馏性的物质。其次,黑液中有机物发生热分解,燃烧生成CO2、SO2,并放出大量的热,同时与有机物结合的钠离子也获得分离与氧反应生成Na2O,并进一步与CO2反应生成Na2CO3,最后在有机物质完全燃烧的同时,完成芒硝的还原。

Principles of combustion:the combustion process can be basically separated into several phases which are associated with each other. Firstly, the black liquor is sprayed into the combustion chamber and makes contact with high temperature gases. Moisture begins to evaporate,and dry distillation is obtained. Secondly, the organic matter in the black liquor is decomposed thermally, generating CO2 and SO2 and discharging substantive heat through combustion, while sodion which is conjointed with organic matter gets separated and then reacts with oxygen, generating Na2O which further more reacts with CO2,and then Na2CO3 is generated. In the end, Glauber's salt's deaeration is finished in the complete combustion of organic substances.

Na2SO4+4C→Na2S+4CO-136.0 kcal

燃烧过程主要化学反应如下:

Principal chemical reactions during combustion are as below:

2NaOH+CO2→Na2CO3+H2O

Na2S+CO2+H2O→Na2CO3+H2S

Ba2S+SO2+H2O→Na2CO3+H2S

2H2S+3O2→2SO2+2H2O

2Na2S+3O2→2Na2SO3

6.2 影响燃烧的因素 The factors impacting combustion

a.燃烧所需空气量;

a. The amount of air needed for combustion

当空气量供给不足时,会产生CO,空气量供给过多时会降低炉温,使芒硝还原率降低,因此风量、风比配比应合适。

While air supply is not enough, CO will be generated. While air is oversupplied the temperature of the incinerator will decrease, which will lead the reduction of percent deaeration of Glauber's salt. Therefore, the air input, wind flow ratio match should be adequate.

b.黑液的特性;

b. The characteristics of the black liquor

在黑液的组分中,有机物比值越大,黑液发热值越大,灰分含量越小,燃烧情况越好。

In the components of black liquor, the bigger the organic matter ratio is, the larger the black liquor calorific value will be, hence the ash content will be smaller and the combustion will be better.

c.黑液浓度、流量和温度

c. The concentration, flow rate and temperature of black liquor

浓度;在泵的性能许可条件下,选用高浓黑液。因浓度低,燃烧困难,产碱、产汽、热效率都低。太低,炉温下降或是垫层太湿燃烧不良,严重时还会发生爆炸事故。

Concentration: high thick black liquor should be adopted while the performance of pump permits. This is because when the concentration is low, the combustion will be difficult, both the production of alkali and vapor will be low, and the thermal efficiency will be decreased. If the concentration is too low, or the temperature of incinerator decreases too much, or the underlayer is too wet, combustion will not be in a good state,and sometimes even explosion may occur.

喷液量;在炉子90-105%之间运行较合适。避免超负荷运行。

Amount of  liquid sprayed: it is preferred for the capacity to be controlled between 90-105% in the incinerator, and overloaded operation should be avoided.

温度:垫层温度低,产生大量含硫气体,太高钠盐升华飞失严重。

Temperature:if underlayer temperature is low,a great deal of sulfurous gases will be generated. If underlayer temperature is over high, sodium salt will be lost severely through sublimation.

d.芒硝加入量:过量,芒硝还原率下降,锅炉热效率下降,因芒硝还原反应吸热。

d. Amount of Glauber's salt added:if too much Glauber's salt is added, the percent deaeration of Glauber's salt will fall down, and then the thermal efficiency of the boiler will also fall down, for the deaeration of the Glauber's salt will absorb parts of the heat.

e.垫层高度:垫层合适,炉温稳定,芒硝还原率高,黑液干燥好,燃烧也稳定。

e. The thickness of the underlayer: the underlayer with a proper thickness will make the temperature of the incinerator stable,improve the Glauber's salt's percent deaeration,benefit the drying of the black liquor,and make the combustion stable.

f.喷压:喷压大,颗粒雾化太细小,碱法飞失严重。

f. The spraying pressure:when the spraying is under too much pressure,the size of grains atomized will be too fine, and the loss of alkaline will be severe.

6.3 燃烧原理及黑液燃烧的主要因素

The principle of combustion and the major factors affecting the combustion of black liquor

黑液的浓度,雾化的直径,炉内温度,喷射的角度以及喷液的方式是影响黑液燃烧的主要因素。

The major factors affecting the combustion are: the concentration of the black liquor, the diameter of the atomizing, the inside temperature of the incinerator,the angle of liquor being sprayed and, as well as the spraying mode.

7  锅炉传热方式及影响锅炉传热效率的因素

The heat transfer mode in the boiler and the factors affecting the heat transfer efficiency of the boiler

7.1 锅炉传热方式 The heat transfer mode in the boiler

a.炉膛内烟气 辐射 水冷壁外壁 传导 内壁 对流 炉水

a. (Flue gases inside the combustion chamber) radiate (outer wall of water cooler) conduct (inner wall) convect ( water in the boiler)

b.炉膛内烟气 辐射 过热器外壁 传导 内壁 对流 过热蒸汽

b. (Flue gases inside the combustion chamber) radiate (outer wall of superheater) conduct (inner wall) convect (steam-gas)

c.烟气 对流 省煤器外壁 传导 内壁 对流 给水

c. (Flue gases) convect (outer wall of economizer) conduct (inner wall) convect (fed water)

7.2 影响因素:a.燃烧工况:△黑液浓度 △芒硝加入量 △垫层高低

 △一、二、三次风风量配比大小

The factors affecting the incineration:a. combustion condition:△ the concentration of black liquor, △ the amount of Glauber's salt added, △ thickness of the underlayer,△一、二、三次风风量配比大小

             b.受热面积灰情况  Fouling state of heating surface

             c.排烟是否顺畅    The smoothness of gases exhaust

8  溶解岗位、锅炉岗位的开停机操作及正常运行中的检查和调节

The start-stop operation of dissolve station and boiler station / the check-up and adjustment during proper operation.

溶解岗位开机前应检查所属设备是否处于备用状态,消音喷嘴、溜子口是否顺畅,溶解槽要有一定的液位。开机时要时刻注意溜子的通畅,有堵应及时疏通,根据绿液总浓度调节稀白液加入量,控制在工艺要求的范围。经常检查溶解槽搅拌、消音、绿液泵运行情况及时清理过滤器。锅炉岗位,开机前检查各疏水阀是否开启,设备是否处于可运行状态,备用水箱保证足够的液位,升火时注意水位变化,定期排污和冲洗水位计,按要求吹灰,具体开停机步骤需以实践操作为准。

Before starting the dissolve station, check the equipments to see if they are ready for use, if the muffling muzzle and trough mouth are smooth and the dissolving tank has a certain liquid level. When starting pay attention to the smoothness of the trough, and dredge it in time when blocked. The supply of white liquor should be adjusted according to the concentration of green liquor and should be controlled at the range of the process requirements. The operation of dissolving tanks, agitators, muffles and green liquor pump should be checked frequently and the filters should be cleaned in time. Boiler station: before starting it must be checked that whether all valves are open, whether all equipments are ready for running, whether storage tanks keep adequate liquid level. Keep records of the variations in water level when starting up. Drain the wastes and flush the water level meters periodically, and blow the dusts as required. The detailed steps of start-stop of the system refer to the operations in the practices.

9 表盘司水及碱炉开停机操作及正常运行中的检查和调节

The start-stop operation of the water fed monitoring dial and the alkali incinerator / the check-up and adjustment during proper operation.

表盘司水开停机最主要要看好水位,认真调节给水量保证水位在汽包中心线以下,特别在开机时要及时反馈水位变化,以便通知锅炉、碱炉及时调整,同时注意各液位、温度、电流、负压变化,有异常通知有关岗位调整。

The main job for the monitoring the water feeding when start-stop is to check the water level,carefully adjust the water fed and keep the water level below the centre of steam drum,especially the variation in water level should be fed back in time when starting-up, so that the boiler, alkali incinerator can be informed and the adjusted in time. At the same time the variation of liquid level, temperature, electric current and negative pressure should be monitored, and informed to related posts for adjustments, should any abnormity occur.

碱炉开停机,首先检查各相关设备,阀门是否处于需要状态,黑液浓度是否在工艺要求范围,喷枪是否完好,开停机时要先燃油烧低垫层,升降温度压力要在规定要求内逐步进行,调节好一、二、三次风压以及分量配比,及时清理各层风咀挂碱,根据硫度变化调节芒硝加入量。      

Before starting the alkali incinerator, it should be inspected that whether the related equipments and valves are ready for use, whether the concentration of the black liquor is in the scope of the process requirements, whether the spraying gun is in good condition. The low underlayer should be burnt by fuel first when starting, the fluctuation of the temperature and pressure should be proceeded gradually according to the requirements. The first, secondary and tertiary air pressures should be adjusted properly as well as the match of the air input. The alkali attached on the air spouts of different layers should be cleared in time. And the amount of Glauber's salt added should also be regulated along with the variation of the sulfur degree.

10 碱回收烟尘回收的基本知识

The basic knowledge of alkali recovery and soot recovery

10.1 从锅炉出来的烟气中大约含有40-90公斤的碳酸钠和硫酸钠,直接排入大气,势必造成大气污染并损失大量的碱。为此必须采用静电除尘器对粉尘进行回收。

The flue gases from the boiler contain nearly 40-90 kilograms of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate. If they are exhausted directly to atmosphere, the air will surely be polluted and causes the great loss of substantive alkali. Therefore, the a electrostatic dust catcher should be used to recover the dusts.

10.2 静电除尘步骤 The steps of the of electrostatic dust collection

a.通过气体离子或电子,使尘粒带电

a. Electrify the dust particles using gas ions or electrons.

b.通过气流将带电的尘粒输送到集电极

b. Transport the electrified dust particles to the collectors by the air stream.

c.使带电的尘粒放电

c. Make the electrified dust particles discharging.

d.从电极上移走所沉积的尘粒

d. Remove the deposited dust particles from the electrodes.

10.3 静电除尘原理 The principle of electrostatic dust collection

静电除尘器是由较小直径的放电极和集电极组成,放电极是阴极,成芒刺状,集电极是阳极,并接地,成板式。烟气从电极间通过。放电级加上负的直流高压电,在两级间形成单向的高压电场,在临界电压和临界电压以上时,阴极表面附近产生电晕放电。电晕是两极之间的气体,电离的明显表现,并在靠近阴极的区域形成正负气体离子,这些离子附着在烟气中所夹带的固态颗粒上,并根据具体情况使颗粒带正电或负电,然后这些带电的颗粒附着并沉积在极性相反的电极上,颗粒放弃电荷,并轻微地粘在电板上,经振打落下。

The electrostatic dust catcher is composed of small-diameter discharge electrodes and collectors. The discharge electrode is cathode which is shaped in burrs, while the collector is anode which is led to the ground and shaped in plate type. The flue gases pass through the electrodes. Negative direct current with high voltage is loaded on the discharge electrodes. Unidirectional high-voltage electric field is formed between the two electrodes. When reaching or above the critical voltage, corona discharge will be created near the cathode surface. The caronae is gathered gases between the two electrodes, and it shows the ionization obviously. Positive-negative gas ions are formed near the cathodal region. These ions attach on the solid grains which exist in the flue gases, and make grains positive charged or negative charged. Then these charged grains attach and deposit on the electrodes having opposite polarity. The grains release the charges and slightly cling to the electro plate, and fall down after being shaken.

11  碱回收工艺过程中的一般计算

 General calculation of technological process of alkali recovery

11.1 总碱量计算:T=G(C1-C2)

The calculation of the total amount of alkali: T=G(C1-C2)

式中:T:总碱产量

In the equation: T: Total alkali output

      C1:绿液总碱Total alkali of green liquor

      C2:稀白液总碱Total alkali of sparse white liquor

11.2 芒硝还原率:Percent deaeration of Glauber’s salt:

熔物中 ×100%(以Na2O表示)

in molten materials  ×100% (marked as Na2O )

12. 突然停水,停电事故的应变措施?

The emergent measures when water/power supply is cut

12.1 局部跳闸或电源停电,应立即进行局部恢复或投入第二电源。否则,应开大蒸汽消音,停止燃烧,尽量保持汽包水位。待来电后,进行全面检查,按启动程序恢复生产。如系时间停电,则按停炉处理。

To deal with partial trip or power cut,local recovery should be proceeded or the second power source be plunged immediately. Or,turn up the steam amortization,stop the combustion, and try to keep the water level in the steam drum. When the power recovers, complete inspection should be proceeded, and then reinstate the production according to start-up procedure. If it is a long-time power cut, then stop the incinerator.

12.2停水时,应立即停止燃烧,停一次风,保持炉膛负压和排风,关闭所有放水门(包括连排),保持汽包正常水位,注意来水时不要让给水(冷却水)剧烈冷却碱回收炉的承压部件。

If the water supply is cut off, the combustion should also be stopped, and the primary air input should be cut. Keep the pressure and the air draft of the combustion chamber, and shut all vent valves (including continuous). Keep the normal water level in the steam drum. It should be noticed that when the water is supplied again, don't let the pressure-receiving parts of the alkali recovery incinerator be cooled down too quickly by the fed water (cooling water).

13 什么情况下应做紧急停炉?紧急停炉程序?

On what occasions should an emergency stop of the incinerator be conducted?And what is the procedure of an emergency stop of the incinerator?

发生下列情况之时,应紧急停炉:

The emergency stop of the incinerator must be conducted when one of the instances below occurs:

a、锅炉严重满水     f、水或稀黑液进入炉膛内无法阻止

b、锅炉严重缺水     g、炉内爆炸响声    j、溶解槽爆破

c、所有水位计损坏   h、烟囱突然堵塞

d、水冷壁管,炉管爆裂   I、仪表压缩空气全部断绝

e、全部停电,给水中断,在3分钟内不能恢复时

a. The boiler is filled with water.

b. The boiler is short of water.

c. All water level meters are spoiled.

d. Water cooling tubes or the boiler tubes blow out.

e. Power and water supply failures last for more than 3 minutes.

f. Water or sparse black liquor enter the combustion chamber and cannot be stopped.

g. Sound of explosion inside the boiler is heard.

h. Dissolving tank breaks.

i. Chimney blocked unexpectedly.

j. Compressed air for the meters cut off.

紧急停炉程序,参阅《碱炉的事故处理规则》,因为各种情况停炉程序都不相同。

For emergency stop procedure please refer to "the rules of dealing with the troubles of alkali incinerator ", for the procedures of stopping the incinerator differ much under different conditions.

14 锅炉缺水满水判断及处理?

The estimations and treatments of water shortage/fullness inside the boiler.

14.1 满水现象:a、汽包水位高于沉淀的正常水位,水位计极壁;b、给水流量大于蒸汽流量;c、过热蒸汽温度下降,含盐量增大;d、严重时,蒸汽管内发生汽水冲击,   处向外冒汽,处理分为:①锅炉压力和给水压力正常时的处理,冲洗对水位计,给水由下力改平动,减少给水量。②仍无效时,关闭给水阀,停止给水,打开排污阀连排,定排,以及蒸汽母管和过热器联箱疏水闭超高时通知与汽机解列、低负荷运行注意水位出现,水进入过热器管时,停炉进行反冲洗。

Full of water:a. The water level in the steam drum is higher than the normal water level and the water level meter reaches the top. b. Fed water flow is greater than steam flow; c. the temperature of steam-gas falls down, and the salt concentration increases. d. Severely, steam and water impact inside the steam pipe,and steam comes out of the pipe. The treatments are as below: ①When the pressures of the boiler and the fed water are normal,flush the water level meter, feed the water in horizontal movements instead of vertical,and reduce the fed water flow. ②If still not work, shut the water feeding valves,cut the water feeding,open the waste draining valves, and drain both continuously and timely. If the main steam tubes and the superheater are over-pressed, detach the superheater from the turbine machine. When running under load, the water level should be monitored, and if the water enters the superheater tubes, stop the incinerator and reverse the flushing direction.

14.2 缺水现象。A、水位计水位低于正常水位,并报警,给水量不正常地小于蒸汽流量。B、过热蒸汽温度上升,处理:加强给水,关闭各排污阀,降顺荷运行,娄低读水位计无水位时,应作紧急停炉处理。

Short of water: A. The water level meter shows a lever lower than normal water level and alarms at the same time. The amount of fed water is less than the steam flow abnormally. B. The temperature of steam-gas rises. Treatments: Feed more water. Shut all waste draining valves. Run under a lower load. If the water level meter shows no water, emergency stop of the incinerator should be done.

15 水冷壁管、炉管及过热器管损坏的现象,判断和处理?

The sign, estimation and treatment of damage in water cooling tubes, boiler tubes and superheater tubes.

15.1 水冷壁管、炉管爆裂现象及处理

The signs and treatments of the blowing out of water cooling tubes and boiler tubes.

a、现象:①汽包水位迅速下降。②蒸汽压力和给水压力下降。③给水流量不正常地大于蒸汽流量。④排烟温度降低。⑤轻微泄漏时,有蒸汽喷射的响声、爆破时,有显著的响声。⑥燃烧室受正压,并从炉内喷出烟气,燃烧不稳或灭火。⑦灰计有湿灰。⑧若是水冷壁管漏水,有可能发生爆炸。

a. Signs: ①The water level in the steam drum falls down rapidly. ②The pressure of steam and fed water fall down. ③The fed water flow is greater than the steam flow abnormally. ④The temperature of flue gases exhausting fall down. ⑤The noise of steam blasting an be heard when small leakage occurs. Notable noise can be heard when blows up. ⑥There is positive pressure in the combustion chamber,and the flue gases are blown out from the incinerator. The combustion is unsteady or the fire in the incinerator dies out. ⑦Wet dust occurs. ⑧If the water cooling tubes leak,explosion may occur.

b、处理:①发出警报,无关人员迅速离开现场。②立即停止锅炉给水,与蒸汽母管解列。③立即停止鼓风,继续喷浓黑液将垫层熄灭。④迅速打开下汽包紧急排水阀、排污阀。⑤紧急停炉。⑥如水漏入炉内发生爆炸时,一定要镇静,不要慌张,紧急停炉,必要时迅速离开现场。

b. Treatments: ①Sound the alarm, and all irrelevancy members must leave at once. ②Cut the water feeding of the boiler immediately,and detach the main steam tube. ③Stop air fans immediately, and keep spraying thick black liquor to extinguish the underlayer. ④Open immediately the emergency drain valves and the waste draining valves of the steam drum. ⑤Stop the incinerator. ⑥If the water leaks into the boiler which leads to explosion, stay calm in any event and do not be flurry,stop the boiler and leave the spot immediately if necessary.

15.2 过热器管损坏现象及处理

The signs and treatments of the damage of superheater tubes.

a、现象:①蒸汽流量不正常地小于给水流量。②损坏严重时,锅炉汽压下降,饱和蒸汽压力和过热蒸汽压力之差明显增大。③炉膛负压不正常地减少或变正压,严重时,不密处向外喷汽和冒烟。④过热器的烟温降低或两侧温差增大。⑤过热器附近有异响。

a. Signs: ①steam flow is less than feeding water flow abnormally.②If the damage is severe, the pressure of the steam falls down,and the difference between the saturated vapor pressure and superheated vapor pressure aggrandizes notably. ③The negative pressure of combustion chamber decreases abnormally or changes to positive pressure,and more severely, steam and smoke is sprayed out from the leaking spots. ④Gas temperature in the superheater drops or temperature difference between two sides of the superheater aggrandizes. ⑤Strange noises are heard near the superheater.

b、处理:①轻微泄漏时,若无继续扩大趋势,可根据生产需要在低负荷下短时间运行或按正常停炉处理。②严重损坏时,应按紧急停炉处理。③停炉后,引风机要保持继续运行,以排除炉内蒸汽和烟气。

b. Treatments:①If small leakage occurs and there is no trend for the leakage to enlarge, keep the boiler running under part-loaded condition during a short period of time to meet the requirements of production or stop the incinerator properly. ②If the damage is severe, an emergency stop should be conducted. ③After stopped,air inducing fan should be kept running continuously so as to drive the steam and flue gases inside the incinerator.

16 碱炉、锅炉安全规程:

The safety regulations of alkali incinerator and boiler:

16.1 碱炉安全:a.防止熔融与水接触爆炸,如入炉黑液浓度低,炉管破裂等。

The security of alkali incinerator:a. Prevent the molten materials from contacting with water to cause explosion. For example, the lower concentration of the black liquor added to the incinerator, and the burst of boiler tubes, etc.

b.溶解槽安全操作:△绿液消音、蒸汽消音使用良好;

b. The safe operation of dissolving tanks: △the mufflers of green liquor and steam is running properly.

△溶融物流量稳定,不超过消音能力;

△The quantity of molten materials stream is stable and does not exceed the muffling capacity.

△适当搅拌溶解槽中的绿液;

△Agitate the green liquor in the dissolving tank relevantly.

△保持溶解槽中绿液的适当液位;

△ keep the green liquor in the dissolving tank at a proper level.

△保持绿液的适当浓度,防止结晶

△keep proper concentration of green liquor to prevent the crystallization.

c.可燃气体爆炸:辅助燃料、黑液

c. Fuel gas explosion:auxiliary fuel, black liquor

d.烟道着火(使用蒸汽)

d. Fire in the flue (steam can be used)

e.负压过大造成炉构体损坏

e. The body of the incinerator damaged with negative pressure being too large.

16.2 锅炉安全:a.检查各安全附件是否灵敏、可靠,连接通道有无堵塞;

Security of boiler:a. check to see if all security accessories are sensitive and credible,and whether the connected tube is blocked.

b.高低水位报装,低水位联锁,保护装置、超压报警和超压联锁保护

装置动作是否灵敏、可靠。

b. The alarm inspector for the highest / lowest water level, the low water level interlock, the protector, the alarm inspector for overpressure and the interlock protection of overpressure.

c.锅炉运行中遇到危及锅炉安全的情况应紧急停炉。

c. The emergency stop should be conducted if anything endangering the boiler occurs.

d.操作人员应熟悉锅炉安全知识,按章作业。

d. The operators should be familiar with the knowledge about the boiler security and operate as regulated.

e.锅炉运行时,操作人员应执行有关锅炉安全运行的各项制度,做好运行值班记录和交接班记录。

e. When the boiler is in operation, the operators should perform every requirement related to safe operation of boiler, and keep both operating records and handing over records.

7  燃烧主要污染物包括粉尘,总还原性硫TRS、SO2、氮氧化物

The major pollutants of incineration include dust,TRS, SO2 and nitrogen oxide.

控制粉尘浓度,要求集尘器系统效率良好。

The dust concentration must be under control,and the dust collecting system efficiency must be fairly high.

控制炉膛内TRS排放,①调整炉膛下部的工艺条件,减少释放H2S。②将TRS氧化成SO2。③取消直接接触蒸发器(圆盘蒸发器等),保持稳定的垫层,温度高,有利于减少SO2排放。

TRS exhausting control: ①Adjust the processing condition in the lower parts of the combustion chamber and reduce the exhaust of H2S. ②Oxidized the TRS into SO2. ③Cancel the directly connected evaporator (disc evaporator, etc.), keep the underlayer steady and the temperature high,which will be in favor of the reducing the exhaust of SO2.

18 燃烧技改情况: The combustion technology improvements:

18.1 绿液消音系统管线,喷咀重新制作,减少结垢和堵塞。

On the green liquor muffling system pipeline,the muzzles are rebuilt to reduce the fouling and blockage.

18.2 溶解槽液位由稀白液调节阀控制改为泵出口调节阀运程手动控制。

The liquid level control in the dissolving tank is now made manually by the controling valves located at the outlet of the pump instead of by the valves of sparse white liquor.

18.3 增加一条新绿液输送管线及温水洗涤管线。

A new green liquor pipe and a warm water washing pipe are now added.

18.4 芒硝黑液混合槽出口筛板采用δ=3mm不锈钢板制作。

The screen plate at the outlet of the mixing tank for the Glauber's salt and black liquor is made of δ=3mm stainless steel plate.

18.5 黑液放空槽回送蒸发工段管线更改,满足圆盘蒸发器水洗要求。

The pipeline from the black liquor vent tank to evaporation section is modified to meet the requirements of washing the disc evaporator.

18.6 电除尘刮灰机构增加刚度,减少机械损坏。

The rigidity of the ash scraper in the electric precipitation system is increased to slow the mechanical damage.

18.7 利用凝结水箱热水洗涤圆盘蒸发器。

The hot water from the condensing tank is made use of to wash the disc evaporator.

19 运行经验及注意事项: The items need attention and the operating experiences:

19.1入炉黑液的浓度、粘度。较高的黑液温度,喷液的粒度较细;黑液温度较低,喷液的粒度较粗。

The concentration and the viscosity of the black liquor added to the incinerator. The higher the black liquor temperature is, the finer the spray granularity will be; The lower the temperature is, the grosser the granularity will be.

19.2 保证供风均匀稳定,风咀保持清洁畅通,风温约150℃。

Feed the air uniformly stable,keep the air entrance clean and unblocked,and the air temperature should be maintained at about 150℃.

19.3 根据黑液成分和品种的变化,稳定化学药品(芒硝)的添加量。

Stabilize the amount of chemical materials (Glauber's salt)added, according to the change of the components and categories of the black liquor.

19.4 调整喷入黑液性状和供风比例,控制垫层存量和温度。

Adjust the character of the black liquor sprayed and the air fed scale,control the storage amount and the temperature of the underlayer.

19.5 避免炉膛上部积聚和落下大块碱灰,发生燃烧故障。

Avoid the accumulation and dropping of big alkali ash from the upper part of the combustion chamber to prevent combustion troubles.

19.6 定期吹扫受热面,减少烟道积灰现象的发生。

Blow and clean the heating surfaces regularly and prevent the flue from accumulation.

19.7 黑液喷咀要保持清洁,稳定喷液性状。

Keep the black liquor muzzle clean and stabilize the character of the liquid spraying.

19.8 起炉前垫层形状务必清理好,避免起炉堵塞一次风嘴或溶物倒流,减少燃油消耗。

Before starting incineration, the shape of the underlayer must be cleared up carefully, so as to prevent the primary wind muzzle from being blocked, and avoid the back flow of the molten materials and reduce the fuel used.

19.9 起炉油压稳定在2-3kgf/cm2,溜子口应专人看守避免溜子堵塞。

The pressure of the oil while starting incineration should be maintained at 2-3kgf/cm2, and the trough mouth should be watched by specially assigned inspector to avoid the blockage of the trough.

19.10 起炉升温、升压应严格按要求进行,停炉泄压、降温也得严格按规范执行。

The changing of temperature and  pressure should be proceeded exactly as required during the process of starting up, as well as when stopping..

19.11喷黑液前,炉膛部位吹灰二道,避免正常喷液后吹灰落下挂碱堵塞风嘴。

Before spraying the black liquor, blow away the dust in the combustion chamber twice to avoid the air muzzle being blocked by the ashes or alkali accumulated after the normal liquid spraying.

19.12多加强现场巡回检查,多进行一次表与二次表对照检查。

Patrol and inspections on the working sites should be Carried through, and comparative inspections between the main meter and the panel board meter must be done frequently.

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